Grade 1 curriculum should focus on language arts (reading, writing, listening, speaking,and viewing) and mathematics instruction. Integration of science and the social sciences should occur. The Grade 1 program should be rich in experiences with the visual arts, music and physical education. Intervention programs, such as Reading Recovery ™ and Teaching Literacy Competence (TLC) ™, should focus on children who are at risk of reading failure. These programs should be based on a one to one ratio and / or small groups of children.